Tag: land tenure

Mizan Law Review Vol 5, No 2 (2011)

Mizan Law Review publishes peer reviewed scholarly articles that identify, examine, explore and analyze legal and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings. Mizan’s articles aim at interpretation, description, exploration and diagnosis towards the solution of problems (or legal issues) including proactive critique and projection that assist the development of laws.(Source African Journals on-line   http://www.ajol.info)


Elias N. Stebek


This article examines whether the land rent contracts and the Ethiopian legal framework on rural land use rights can assure win-win mutual benefits expected from large-scale land transfers to foreign investors. The article further examines the challenges in the realization of the Seven Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investments prepared by FAO, IFAD, UNCTAD and the World Bank Group as a framework of standards for the current global dialogue on large-scale farmland acquisitions. I argue that land-use insecurity in the Ethiopian context results from the extensive powers of executive offices that are empowered to dispossess holders and reallocate land to investors. These powers can be even more discretionary where land transfers are made without prior mapping and demarcation of protected forests and wildlife, and where registration and the issuance of land-holding certificates to smallholder farmers and pastoralists have not yet been made. The article suggests the need to rectify the gaps in the land transfer contracts and most importantly, the need to render the government a custodian (and not owner) of land in conformity with the FDRE Constitution and to ensure that the termination of land use rights is decided by courts so that executive offices would not perform the dual functions of revoking and reallocating rural land use rights.

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Belachew Mekuria Fikre


The right to development stands out as one of the controversial rights ever since its articulation in the 1970s. The adoption of the 1986 United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development underlines the importance of international cooperation for it to be realised. I argue that the emphasis on ‘development aid’ rather than the broader ‘development cooperation’ has contributed a great deal to the politicisation of the right and consequently undermined its materialisation. Indeed, there is the need for semantic and conceptual clarity in the use of the term ‘international assistance and cooperation’ that has deceptively supplanted ‘international cooperation.’ While the former is a term used under Article 2(1) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights with a view to laying down the broader States Parties’ obligations, the latter is what the Declaration on the Right to Development exclusively employs. I argue that even if development assistance is indispensable, taking it as the sole approach to the realisation of the right to development is both wrong and unhelpful.

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Hailegabriel G. Feyissa


Ethiopia’s aviation history goes back to the late 1920s. And, carriage of goods and passengers by air dates at least as far back as the 1940s – the decade which witnessed the establishment of Ethiopian Air Lines Corporation (now Ethiopian Airlines). Despite Ethiopia’s relative success in commercial aviation, domestic literature on commercial air law has been scanty. Court decisions involving air carriage are rare, and one can seldom find a course on air law in the curricula of Ethiopian law schools. This article is an attempt to briefly address the gap in literature and encourage further academic discourse on Ethiopian law of air carriage with particular attention to the law and practice regarding international carriage by air.

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Taddese Lencho


The Ethiopian Value Added Tax of 2002 follows the standard approach of exempting financial services from VAT. Not all ‘financial services’ are, however, exempted from VAT. A number of services provided by the financial institutions are made taxable by the VAT laws of Ethiopia. No subject in this regard has probably attracted as much attention and controversy as that of sale by foreclosure of property held as security by banks. Both sides (i.e., members of the financial industry and the tax authorities) seemed locked in their conviction over the treatment of foreclosure sales in VAT. Members of the financial industry (in particular banks) are convinced that foreclosure sales enjoy the privilege of exemption in VAT while some within the Tax Authorities are equally convinced that foreclosure sales should be chargeable with VAT. These controversies have played out in the courtrooms, the press and a number of communications between the Tax Authorities and the members of the financial industry. This article examines these controversies and analyzes the scope of exemptions for financial institutions under Ethiopian VAT laws.

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The New Land Lease Proclamation: Changes, Implications

(Daniel W. Ambaye

E-mail: danambaye@yahoo.com

This Article which is written in English and Amharic, first appeared on the Reporter newspaper.  It was suggested to me by the writer himself. The writer is a lecturer at the Institute of Land Administration, Bahir Dar University)


The New Land Lease Proclamation: Changes, Implications


The House of Peoples Representatives has passed a new urban lease holding proclamation in October 2011 that is termed as Proclamation 721/2011. This proclamation repeals the previous urban land lease holding proclamation no. 271/2002. The new proclamation has introduced some new and controversial articles which generate lots of discussions among the people and government officials.

Daniel Weldegebriel Ambaye tries to investigate the basic contents of the major changes introduced and the possible implications thereof.

Background and objectives of the proclamation

Before the revolution, urban land was held in Ethiopia in private ownership. When the Derg came to power in 1974, it passed a proclamation (47/1975) that transferred all urban land and extra houses to government ownership. Land owners lost their land without compensation and land was not subject to sale, mortgage, donation, lease and so on. Urban residents were allowed to keep one residential house and another business house, if necessary. Those who had no house at that time were allowed to get a land not more than 500 square meters to construct one. And those who had no ability to do so were given government houses on rental basis. Continue reading “The New Land Lease Proclamation: Changes, Implications”

Ethiopian Urban Land Lease Law (the previous!)

Still I am not getting any good news about the publication of the newly adopted urban land lease law. I will be posting on this new law the moment I get access to it. The following material,  taken from Land Law Teaching Material, an official text book for all Ethiopian law schools, is a must-read to get a glimpse of the nature, content and scope of Ethiopian urban land lease law. It thoroughly discusses and analyses the Lease Holding of Urban Lands Proclamation No. 272/2002 (which is amended or may be totally repealed by the new law.)

The material is prepared by :

Daniel W/Gebriel


Melkamu Belache

Under the sponsorship of:

 Justice and Legal System Research Institute

The material (taken From Chapter Three) is presented here as it is.

3.4 Urban Land Lease

3.4.1 Scope

Today, in Ethiopia, lease is the “cardinal” and “exclusive” land-holding system to transfer urban land to users in accordance with the master plans of each urban area. Hence, unlike the housing sector, urban land is governed by a special legislation, namely, the Lease Holding of Urban Lands Proclamation No. 272/2002. And yet the civil code may be applied whenever necessary. The scope of application of the law is “to an urban land held by the permit system, or by lease-hold system or by other means prior” to the coming of the proclamation “as well as to an urban land permitted hereafter.” Continue reading “Ethiopian Urban Land Lease Law (the previous!)”

Proclamation No. 130/ 2007 Proclamation to amend the proclamation No . 56/2002, 70/2003, 103/2005 of Oromia Rural Lan d Use and Administration

Proclamation No. 130/ 2007
Proclamation to amend the proclamation No . 56/2002, 70/2003, 103/2005 of Oromia Rural Lan d
Use and Administration

WHEREAS, Agriculture is the main source of livelihood to the majority of the population of Oromi a and proper management and utilization of land and land resources is required, in which, the present use doesn’t compromise the development endeavors of the coming generation ;
WHEREAS, it is found necessary to correct the distortions and miss-interpretation shown on irrigabl e land administration and management ;
WHEREAS, it is found important to solve and harmonize the problems encountered whil e implementing the existing proclamations regarding, rights, obligations and security of rural land .
NOW, THEREFORE, in accordance with the Revised Constitution of Oromia Regional State No . 46/1994 Article 49 (3) (a) , it is hereby proclaimed as follows :
1. Short Title
This proclamation may be cited as the “Proclamation to amend the Proclamation No . 56/2002, 70/2003, 103/2005 of Oromia Rural Land Use and Administration Proclamation No . 130 /2007”.
2, Definition
Unless and other wise the context requires, in this proclamation;
1) “Rural Land” refers to all land out side the boundary of a municipal holding .
2) “Irrigation Land” refers to potentially irrigable land or where irrigation scheme shall b e constructed upon agreement with the land users and concerned government organs to develo p the land;
3) “Land acquired by law” means land legally distributed by competent body, or transferred b y inheritance or donation .
4) “State holding” means rural land demarcated and those lands to be demarcated in the futur e which includes forest lands, sanctuaries and protected areas, state farms, mining areas, lakes , rivers and other rural lands .
5) “Communal Holding” refers rural land which the local community commonly uses for grazing , woodlots and other social purposes .
6) “Private Land Holding” refers to rural land in the holding of peasant or pastoralists or sem i pastoralists or other bodies who are entitled by law to use the land .
7) “Possession” refers the right of any peasant or pastoralist or semi pastoralist shall have to us e rural land for agricultural purposes and natural resources development, lease out and bequeat h to members of his family and includes the right to acquire property produced on his lan d
thereon by his labor or capital and to sale, exchange and bequeath same .
9) “Redistribution” refers to the reallocation of land that targets the holding/s/ of individual o r common holding which is applicable only to irrigation land .
10) “Rural Land use” means a process by which the rural land is sustainably used to give bette r outputs through proper management and conservation .
11) “Rural Land Administration” means a process whereby rural land tenure security is provided , land use planning is implemented , disputes and conflicts on land is resolved . and the rights and obligations of land holder are enforced and controlled and as well the land related data ar e collected and analyzed to be availed to users .
12) “Rural Land Use Plan” means a practice whereby the options that greater economic benefits without causing land degradation and environmental pollution are determined and implemente d from among the different use options a rural land can give on the basis of physical, economic and social information.
13) “A peasant” means any person to whom the right to use rural land is provided to earn th e livelihood for him and/or his family .
14) Pastoralists” refers to a member of rural community whose livelihood depends on livestock rearing and move from place to place in search of water and grazing land .
15) “Semi- pastoralist ” means a member of rural community whose livelihood depends mainly o n livestock rearing and to some extent on crop production .
16) “Family member” means children of the land holder or dependents who do not have othe r income for their livelihood .
17) “Fixed assets” means perennial plants that give yield seasonally .
18) “Modern Agriculture” means any farming system whereby modern farming technologies ar e applied for better economic development including irrigation and livestock production .
19) “Land information system” refers a system whereby rural land related information are collected , analyzed and be availed for the users .
20) “Land registration” means the process whereby information on the expression of rural land us e right and holding is gathered and analyzed.
21) “Holding certificate” refers to certificate of title issued by Oromia Bureau of Agriculture an d Rural Development as proof of rural land use right.
22) “Watershed” refers to catchment area from which the run-off flows into one direction/ out let .
23) “Mother tree” means a matured and physically good standing tree from which seed is collected .
3. Gender expression
The provisions of this proclamation set out for masculine gender shall also apply to the feminine gender.

4. Scopeof Application
This Proclamation shall apply to any rural land in the Oromia Regional State .
The Right to Acquire, Use and Guarantee to Use Rural Lan d
5. The Right to Acquire Rural Land
1) Any resident of the region, aged eighteen years and above, whose livelihood depends o n agriculture and/or wants to live on, have the right to get rural land free of charge .
2) Women have equal rights with men to possess, use and administer the rural land .
3) Government and non governmental organizations, private investors and social organization s have the right to get rural land .
4) The rural community has the right to access rural land for grazing; religious or ritual places, water points and other social services .
5) Any peasant, pastoralist or semi pastoralist having the right to use rural land may get rural lan d from his family by donation, inheritance or from government .
6. Land Use Rights
1) Any peasant or pastoralist, or semi pastoralists who has the right to use rural land shall have the right to use and lease on his holdings, transfer it to his family member and dispose propert y produced there on, and to sell, exchange and transfer the same without any time bound .
2) Without prejudice to this Article Sub-Article (1) selling of fixed assets like coffee, mango , avocado, papaya, orange etc, is prohibited .
3) Without prejudice to this Article Sub- Article (2), selling of products of fixed assets like produc t of coffee, mango, avocado, papaya, orange etc . shall be possible if and only if the followin g conditions are fulfilled :
(a) The land occupied by the product to be sold shall not exceed half of the total land holding o f the individual .
(b) The product shall be sold for three (3) years only .
4) According to this Article Sub-Article (3) any individual or organ who bought the property shal l be obliged :
(a) To return back the holding to the owner after three years .
(b) To take care of and conserve the asset accordingly .
5) Any peasant or pastoralist or semi pastoralist shall not be evicted from his holding and hi s holding shall not be transferred to any body or organization due to any liability or execution of

6) In any condition the right to sell property specified under this Article, Sub-Article (1) doesn’ t include the land .
7) The use right of any peasant, pastoralist or semi pastoralists shall not be transferred because o f selling fixed assets, and the previous agreement made on this processes shall be treated in
accordance with this Article Sub-Article 3 (b).
8) Any individual or organ who bought houses and other buildings built on rural land shall b e obliged to take off his property.
9) Any mal land user who terminates the right of using his holding is obliged to notilyto the Agricultural and Rural Development Bureau of Oromia .
10) Without prejudice Sub- Article (1) of this Article, the rural land use right shall be terminate d only if that land is required for more important public uses .
11) According to this Article Sub-Article (10,) any individual or organ whose land holing is take n for public uses shall have the right to get compensation for his properties and benefits los t beforehand ; as much as possible, gets equivalent land individually or in group .
12) If not possible to replace in accordance with Sub-Article (11) of this Article, compensation fo r rehabilitation shall be paid .
13) Without prejudice to the condition under Article 7(1) of this Proclamation, considering th e number of their children they raise, husband and wife upon divorce shall have the right to shar e their land holding that was registered by their name equally .
14) Aged, disabled, orphans, and women, and also those in the same situation can use thei r holdings by hiring labour, renting, or entering an agreement to share income with a developer .
15) According to Sub-Article (14) this Article, if the agreement is for more than six months, th e agreement shall be in a written form shall be concluded before the Agricultural and Rura l
Development Bureau of Oromia .
16)Without prejudice Sub-Article (1) of this Article, any rural land user shall be deprived of hi s land use right under the following conditions : leaving the land unused for two consecutiv e years, leaving the holding on his own reason, or neglect conserving the land . The detail shall be decided by Oromia Agricultural and Rural Development Bureau .
7. Determination of Farm Plot Siz e
1) Maintaining the existing farm plot size as it is, the holding size for the future shall not be les s than 0 .5 hectares for annual crops, and 0 .25 hectares for perennial crops .
2) The plot size for new settlers shall take into consideration the average holding size of the community in that specific locality .
8. Consolidation of Farm Plots
The merging of farm plots shall be made based on the consensus and willingness ofthe holders.

9. Transferring Land Use Rights Through Inheritance or Donation of Lan d
1) Any peasant, pastoralist, or semi pastoralist landholder, shall have the right to transfer his land use right to his family member who have inheritance right according to the lava .
2) Without prejudice to Sub- Article (1) of this Article, heirs whose livelihood is entirely dependen t on the income from that land, or have no other income shall be given inheritance priority .
3) If the inheritance of land contradicts the provision specified in Article 7(1), the claimants shal l either jointly, or by any other means they agree upon use the land .
4) The government can distributed any land for which no heir is found, to the landless or to land deficit peasants.
5) Any peasant or pastoralist or semi pastoralist shall have the right to transfer his land use right t o his family members or children whose livelihood depends on it, or have no other income, or to his children who have no other incomes or are landless as a gift .
10. Rentingof PrivateHolding
1) Without prejudice to Article 7(1) any peasant, pastoralist or semi pastoralist has the right t o rent out up to half of his holding .
2) Duration of the agreement shall not be more than three years for those who apply traditiona l farming, and fifteen years for mechanized farming .
3) Land renting shall be valid before the law, if and only if it is registered and approval b y Oromia Agricultural and Rural development Bureau . The agreetnents made prior to thi s Proclamation shall be treated according to this proclamation.
4) Necessary support shall be made to make the valuation of land for renting coincide with th e prospective return from that land .
S) Any organ who rented rural land is obliged to apply proper preservation and conservation for the duration he holds the land .
6) Any agreement made on land renting shall bear the consent of all individuals who have right s on that land.
7) For any rented land, the land tax shall be paid by the name of the landholder .
8) Any land holder, having the right to use land, can make special agreement with any investor to develop his holding . The agreement shall be registered and approved by Agricultural and Rural development office in the vicinity .
11 . Land RentingbyGovernment
1) The government can rent out the land not held by the peasants or pastoralists or semi pastoralists .
2) The agreement to be made by Sub-Article 1 of this Article shall protect the benefits of th e peasants, pastoralists or semi pastoralists .
3) The renting price of rural land by government shall be subject to revision as necessary .
4) Theduration oftherenting agteementshall be decided by the government . 12 . Investment Lan d
1) In accordance with the existing investment law of the Region, any private investor shall hav e access to rural land and is obliged to conserve accordingly.

2) Private investors are obliged to plant indigenous trees at least on 2% of the given land .
3) The investment land shall be determined in the way that it shall protect the natural recourses o f the surrounding.
13. Land for Social Services
1) The community has the right to reserve land for residence and other social service s
2) Land can be used for establishing a village or urbanization by the consent of the community on substituting equivalent land or paying compensation to the holders.
14. Distribution and Redistribution of Lan d
1)Redistribution of peasant or pastoralist or semi pastoralist’s land holding shall not be carrie d out in the region, except irrigation land .
2)Unoccupied pockets of agricultural lands may be distributed to the landless and land defici t persons.
3)By the virtue of their comparative advantages. abandoned state farms shall be distributed t o the peasants and/or be rented out to investors.
4)For proper utilization of irrigation land and water resource, irrigation land shall be distributed/redistributed as follows;
(a) A maximum holding size of irrigation land of a peasant household shall not exceed 0 .5 hectare.
(b) “The distribution and redistribution” of irrigation land shall be applied to both traditiona l and modern irrigation lands; but, irrigation lands used by individual or group of farmers by developing spring water, diverting small rivers, water harvesting shall not b e redistributed. The details shall be determined by regulation .
(c) The distribution and redistribution of irrigation land shall take place with the participation and decision of the community using the land .
(d) Giving priority consideration of retaining the maximum holding size of 0.5 hectare for each holder whose land have fallen under irrigation development, and later from the remaining land a minimum holding size of 0 .25 hectare of land shall be distributed for peasants in the vicinity of the.
(e) Any peasant, pastoralist and semi pastoralist whose irrigable land holding is redistribute d to others shall be compensated with a reasonable rain fed land by the users of the
schemes. If compensation is not possible the land holder shall have the right to get additional half (0.5) hectare from the irrigable land .
(f) Any peasant, pastoralist and semi pastoralist whose holding falls under irrigatio n construction and if the landscape compels, is obliged to permit his holding . However, the land holder has the right to claim for compensation or replacement of land .
(g) Any Land user whose holding fall under dams, shall be compensated for his propertie s and given replacement of land by the users of the schemes or from government .
(h) Any irrigation land user shall be obliged to fully and effectively utalize and conserve the land.
(i) All irrigation land users shall be responsible to minimize and mitigate the negative environmental impacts associated with irrigation scheme

15. Rural Land Measurement, Registration and Holding Certificatio n
1) The size of rural lands under the holdings of private, communities, governmental and nongovernmental organizations shall be measured in accordance with their size, land use, an d fertility status and also, shall be registered by the data centers established highrarchicaly .
2)The rural land holdings described in Sub-Article 1 of this Article shall be surveyed with geo-referenced boundaries and maps shall be prepared by Oromia Agricultural and Rural
Development Bureau .
3)Rural land holding data including the current holder, its boundaries, status, potentials, th e right and obligation of the holder shall be registered by Oromia Agricultural and Rura l
Development Bureau and be availed for utilization.
4)Any holder of rural land shall be given a holding certificate by Oromia Agricultural and Rura l Development Bureau describing the size of holding. use and coverage, fertility status an d boundary, and also the right and obligation of the holder .
5)Any rural land that is held by lease or rent shall be registered by Agricultural and Rura l Development Bureau of Oromia.
6) Any rural land holder shall be given a life time certificate of holding .
7) Governmental, non-governmental organizations, investors and social organizations shall ge t certificate on their holdings .
8)Husband and wife holding a common land holding, shall be given a joint certificate of holdin g specifying both their names.
9)Without prejudice to Sub-Article 8 of this Article, husband and wife having equal right i n using the land registered in their names can also independently have a holding certificate fo r
their private holdings . The detail shall be decided by a regulation .
10)The use right of a husband or a wife, or both shall not be affected due to change of thei r residential areas .
11)Any person who has the right to use rural land is obliged to return the holding certificate t o Agricultural and Rural Development Bureau up on leaving to use the land .
12) Whenever the use right of rural land is change, the holding certificate shall be changed to th e new acquiring body accordingly.
13)According to Article 10(2) of this proclamation when the private holding is rented out, th e holding certificate shall be held by the holder .
14)Any person who is found using the land not given to him legally shall be obliged to leave th e land with out any condition and also be subject to penalty in accordance with the law .
15)An investor who has got the use right of rural land through lease or renting from governmen t shall use the right of his assets on the land as collateral .
16) Any one (governmental or non governmental organization or community etc .) who has th e right to use rural land shall be given a holding certificate by their name, whereas for th e communal lands held in the Kebele, the holding certificate shall be given by the name of the community using the land jointly . The details shall be worked out by Oromia Agricultura l and Rural Development Bureau .

16. Conflict and Dispute Resolutio n
1) Any conflict or disputes arising on land shall be resolved as follow :
(a) First application shall be submitted to the local Kebele Administration .
(b) The parties shall elect two arbitrary elders each.
(c) Chairpersons of arbitration elders are elected by the parties or by the arbitral elders, if no t agreed up on shall be assigned by local Kebele administrator .
(d) The Kebele Administration to whom the application is lodged shall cause the arbitrar y elders to produce the result of the arbiteratio15 days .
(e) The result of given by the arbitration shall be registered at the Kebele Administration, an d a copy with an official seal shall be given to both parties .
(f) A Party who has complaint on the rating elders, has the right to institute his case to the woreda court attaching the result of arbitration elders within 30 days as of the date registered by the Kebele Administration.
(g) Woreda court should not receive the suit if the result given by the arbitration is not attached t o it.
(h) The party dissatisfied by the decision given by the woreda court shall have the right to appeal to th e high court .
(i) If the high court altered the decision rendered by the woreda court, the dissatisfied part y may appeal to the Supreme Court .
(j) The decision given by the Supreme Court shall be the final .
2) Not withstanding the provision described Sub-Article 1 of this Article, the parties shall hav e the right to resolve their cases in any form they agreed upon .
17. Pending Cases
1) Pending cases at Kebele Social Court shall be resolved according Article 16 of thi s Proclamation.
2) Pending cases at woreda and other courts shall continue as it is .

                                              PART THREE
Restrictions on Rural Land Use Planning and Conservatio n
18. Land Use Planning and Use of Sloppv and Gully Land s
1) A guiding land use master plan, which takes in to account soil type, landscape, weathe r conditions, vegetation cover and socio—economic conditions at watershed based approach ,
shall be developed and implemented by the Oromia Agricultural and Rural Developmen t
2) An equitable water use system shall be established between upper and lower watershe d communities.
3) In any type of rural land where soil and water conservation works have been undertaken, free grazing shall be prohibited and the condition in which the society utilize will be made step by step.

4) If the slope of the land is less than 30 – 60% its management shall follow the strategy of soi l conservation and water harvesting techniques .
5) Growing annual crops on coral lands having a slope gradient of 30-60% may be allowed onl y through the necessary terracing.
6) The rural land with a slope gradient of >60% shall not be used for crop production and fre e grazing and is limited to production of perennial and forage crops only .
7) Rural land of any’ slope which is highly degraded shall be closed from human and animal interferences for a given period of time to let it recover, and shall be used when ascertained that it has recovered Unless and otherwise the degradation is not caused by negligence, th e users – the peasant, pastoralists and semi pastoralists- shall be given compensation or other alternatives for the interim period .
8) Rural lands that have gullies, shall be put to rehabilitate and use by private and neighborin g holders and, as appropriate, by the local community, using biological and physica l
conservation works .
9) Rural lands that have gullies and are located on hilly areas shall be rehabilitated and develope d communally, and privately individuals as necessary .
10) The biodiversity in rural wetland shall be conserved and utilized in accordance with a suitabl e land use strategy as necessary .
19. Conservation of Farmlan d
1) Any rural land user who has got the use right shall be obliged to work on proper management and conservation of land individually and in cooperation with his neighbors .
2) Any individual who is entitled to use rural land shall be obliged to mange and conserve farm land boundary.
3) Any rural land user shall be obliged not to perform activities that aggravate soil erosion, like forest clearing, cultivating along the slope and unplanned design of traditional drainag e systems etc.
4) Any rural land user shall be obliged to plant tree species that can’t cause any damage o n agricultural land and production and those having economical and environmental advantages .
20. Wetland Managemen t
1) Rural land users are obliged to refrain from performing activities that cause damage to th e wetlands and springs .
2) Mismanagement and improper utilization of wetland is prohibited .
3) The wetland shall be used for agricultural purposes, with the consent of the community an d technical support of professionals.
21. Dams and Reservoir Area s
1)Any land user is obliged to rehabilitate and undertake conservation activities on the catchmen t areas of dam sites and reservoirs .
2)Rural land use in the vicinity of lakes, streams and springs that can cause devastation o f natural resources and biodiversities are prohibited.

22 . Protected and Demarcated Land
I) The government can demarcate and hold wildlife sanctuaries, parks, forest areas, minin g areas and lakes, etc necessary for the existence of many living things .
2)As per Sub-Article 1 of this Article, the demarcated areas shall be made to contribute for a sustainable economic development .
3)Delineation, demarcation, development, protection and rehabilitation and conservation o f protected land shall be done by the participation of the local community .
4)The condition by which the local community may share the benefit from the protected area s shall be arranged.
23. Patches of Forest Lan d
Patches of natural forest lands shall be identified, demarcated, protected, conserved, an d sustainably used by the local community .
24. Management of Remnant Mother Tree s
Land users are obliged to conserve and protect mother trees found on their holdings .

25. Mismanagement and Improper Utilization of Land
1) Any land user is obliged not to plant tree species that can cause damage on agricultural production o r water sources, and shall also be obliged to eradicate noxious weeds from his holdings .
2) Any rural land user, using land for agricultural development is obliged to conserve, preserve , renew soil and water conservation structures, and if not done, construct a new .
3) Any entity engaged in mining development and production shall be obliged to rehabilitate an d develop the mined land .
4) A directive for the proper utilization and conservation of unoccupied hills, degraded and unproductive lands, slid easily, sloppy and mountainous areas shall be drawn .
5) Forest lands, bushes and grass, gullies, shall be protected from fire hazards, expansion of far m lands and also production of coal .
6) Livestock production shall be made to harmonize with the carrying capacity of the grazing land .
7) Grazing farm lands and natural resources in development areas is prohibited .
PART FOUR Miscellaneouss Provision s
26.Responsibility of Oromia Agricultural and Rural Development Burea u
Oromia Agricultural Rural and Development Bureau is responsible for the execution of thi s proclamation .
27. Penaltv
Any land user who violates the provisions in this proclamation or regulations issued for th e implementation of this proclamation shall be tried under the applicable law .

28. Obligation to Cooperate
Any person shall be obliged to cooperate with the relevant bodies for the implementation of thi s proclamation .
29. Responsibility of the Regio n
Oromia Regional Council shall issue the necessary regulations for the implementation of thi s
Proclamation .
30. Repealed and Inapplicable Law s
1) Rural Land Administration and Use Proclamations No . 56/2002, No. 70/2003 and 103/2005 are repealed and replaced by this Proclamation .
2) Any law and practice inconsistent with this proclamation shall be null and void .
31. Effective Date
This proclamation shall enter into force as of 29t h date of July, 2007.
Done at Finfinee, this 29 1″ July, 200 7
Abadula Gemeda
President of Oromia National Regional State