Category: Ethiopian Constitutions

A DRAFT PROCLAMATION TO DETERMINE THE SPECIAL INTEREST OF THE STATE OF OROMIA IN ADDIS ABABA CITY

A DRAFT PROCLAMATION TO DETERMINE THE SPECIAL INTEREST OF THE STATE OF OROMIA IN ADDIS ABABA CITY

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Proclamation No. ——–/2017 
A PROCLAMATION TO DETERMINE THE SPECIAL INTEREST OF THE STATE OF OROMIA IN ADDIS ABABA CITY

WHEREAS Article 49(5) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia provides that the special interest of the State of Oromia in Addis Ababa, regarding the provision of social services, utilization of natural resources and other similar matters as well as administrative matters shall be respected and the particulars shall be determined by law;

WHEREAS it has become necessary to enact law to determine the special interest of the State of Oromia in Addis Ababa as the Constitution stipulates so;

NOW, THERFORE, in accordance with Article 55(1) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it is hereby proclaimed as follows:

SECTION ONE
GENERAL

  1. Short Title

This Proclamation may be cited as the “Protection of the Special Interest of the State of Oromia in Addis Ababa Proclamation No. ——– /2017”.

2. Definition In this Proclamation:

1/ “Constitution” means the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia;

2/ “Administration” means the Addis Ababa City Administration;

3/ “Region” means the State of Oromia;

4/ “special interest” means constitutionally recognized provision of services, or the utilization of natural resources and other similar matters, as well as joint administrative matters arising from the location of Addis Ababa as it is found within the State of Oromia;

5/ “decedents of Oromo nationality” includes all the decedents of the Oromo nationality living in Addis Ababa City and its surroundings;

6/ “boundaries of Addis Ababa city” means the boundaries demarcated by the agreement between the Administration and the Region;

7/ “Surrounding Addis Ababa” means Special Zone of Oromia surrounding Finfine;

8/ “person” means and natural person or juridical body.

3. Scope of Application

This Proclamation shall be applicable within the boundaries of Addis Ababa city Administration and, as appropriate, in the Special Zone of Oromia surrounding Addis Ababa.

SECTION TWO
SOCIAL SERVICE SPECIAL INTEREST OF THE REGION IN ADMINISTRATION

4. Education Service

School facilities providing education in Afan Oromo for the Oromo Nationalities residing within the Administration shall be organized by the expense of the City Administration.

5. Health Service

The urban and rural residents living surrounding Addis Ababa city, like that of the other inhabitants of the City, shall be provided with health service in the government hospitals and health institutions of the City Administration.

6. Cultural, Linguistics and Artistic Services

1/ To enable the provision of special interest services stipulated in this Proclamation to the Oromo Nationalities, Afan Oromo shall serve as working language in the City Administration.

2/ In convenient places such as squares, streets, localities and other similar memorials in the Administration shall, as appropriate, be designated in their original Afan Oromo names to sustain the historical events related to the people of the Region, the cultural and historical legacy that reflect the national identity of the Oromo people.

3/ The Administration shall facilitate the construction of theatre houses, recreation, cultural and artistic centers that reflect and demonstrate history and culture of the Oromo people.

4/ The Administration shall work in close cooperation with the Region to furnish museums of the Administration with the heritages and books that reflect the history, culture and tradition of the Oromo people.

5/ There shall be condition under which the public mass media of the Administration shall, in addition, use Afan Orom.

6/ The former establishment name of the City Administration Finfine in Afan Oromo, with respect to Oromia State, shall have equal legal recognition with Addis Ababa; and the utilization of these names shall be determined in regulations.

SECTION THREE
ECONOMIC SEVICES SPECIAL INTEREST OF THE REGION IN THE ADMINISTRATION

7. Provision of Land

The Region shall, free of lease charges, be provided with plots of lands necessary for construction of buildings for governmental and public services.

  1. Supply of Water

From the surface and underground waters of the Region, from which the Administration gets its water supply, the towns and kebeles of the Region at which water hole is drilled, dam is developed, or through which supply line of water crosses shall be provided with supply of water by the outlay of the Administration.

  1. Transport Service

City bus and taxi transport services and railway infrastructure development and transport service shall encompass towns of the Region surrounding the City Administration.

  1. Job Opportunity

1/ Youths of the Region inhabiting in towns and countryside surrounding the City Administration shall be made beneficiary of the job opportunity found in the Addis Ababa city.
2/ Youths of the Region inhabiting in towns and countryside surrounding the City Administration shall be made beneficiary of the job opportunity created in relation to water development, waste management, power generation from the waste, water shade management, transport services and other similar.

  1. Provision of Market Place

1/ Farmers of the Region shall be provided with market places to sell their agricultural products in an organized manner.
2/ The Administration shall build the market places and facilitate conditions necessary for operation.

  1. Condominium House Benefits

The civil servants and officials of the Region living in the City Administration shall be provided with quota to benefit from the allocation of condominium houses built by public expenses.

  1. Compensation and Sustainable Rehabilitation

1/ The farmers expropriated due to development activities within the Administration, shall have the right to get compensation for their sustainable rehabilitation.
2/ The farmers who had been expropriated without adequate compensation due to development activities within the City Administration shall, based on study, be considered for rehabilitation.
3/ An autonomous office shall be established to handle the issues specified under sub-articles (1) and (2) of this Article.

SECTION FOUR
NATURAL RESOURCE UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION SPECIAL INTEREST OF THE REGION IN THE ADMINISTRATION

  1. Water shade Development

Conditions shall be facilitated to carry on water shade management by the outlay of the Administration in the towns and kebeles of the Region where water hole is drilled, dam is developed to supply water to the Administration or through which supply line of water crosses.

  1. Protection from Environmental Pollution

1/ The towns and kebeles of the Region surrounding Addis Ababa shall be protected from environmental pollution and damage emanating from dry and liquid wastes disposed from the Administration.
2/ To protect towns and kebeles of the Region surrounding Addis Ababa from
environmental pollution and damage emanating from dry and liquid wastes disposal environmental impact assessment shall be conducted and based on the impact assessment necessary rectification shall be taken.
3/ The towns and kebeles of the Region surrounding Addis Ababa shall have the right be compensated by the Administration in accordance with law for damages caused to human, animal and natural environment due to dry and liquid wastes disposed to the Region without proper control, safety and above the required waste disposal standard.
4/ Quarry sites supply input to Addis Ababa city development shall be managed in such a way that they do not cause air pollution and be rehabilitated for forest or other development purposes.
5/ Solid and liquid waste treatment, recycling and disposal sites of the Addis Ababa city shall be chosen based on the joint study conducted by the Administration and the Region and be managed in line with scientific requirements.

SECTION FIVE
JOINT COUNCIL

  1. Establishment of Joint Council

1/ There shall be established a Joint Council of the Region and the Administration (in this Proclamation to be referred as “Council”) to deliberate and pass decision on issues specified under this Proclamations and other matters pertaining to common interest.
2/ The Joint Council shall be accountable to the Federal Government.

  1. Head Office

Head office of the Council shall be in Addis Ababa.

  1. Objective of the Council

The Council shall have the objectives to support the practical realization, efficient execution and follow up of the special interests of the State of Oromia in Addis Ababa, which are stipulated in this Proclamation, regarding the provision of social services, utilization of natural resources and joint administrative matters arising from the location of Addis Ababa within the Region as it is enshrined under Article 49(5) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

  1. Members of the Council

The members of the Council shall equally be represented from the Administration and the Region.

  1. Powers and Duties of the Council

The organization, powers and duties, terms, meeting procedures, code of conduct of the Council members and budget shall be determined by a regulation to be issued by the Council of Ministers.

SECTION SIX
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

  1. Duty to Cooperate

Any person or body shall have duty to cooperate for the implementation of this
Proclamation, regulations issued under, and directives issued and decisions passed by the
Council.

  1. Inapplicable Laws

No law, decision or customary practice, inconsistent to this Proclamation, shall be applicable with respect to matters covered in this Proclamation.

  1. Power to Issue Regulations and Directives

1/ The Council of Ministers may issue regulations necessary for the implementation of this Proclamation.
2/ The Council may issue directives necessary for the implementation of this Proclamation and the regulations issued pursuant to sub-article (1) of this Article.

24. Effective Date

This Proclamation shall enter into force on the date of its publication in the Federal

Negarit Gazetta.
Done at Addis Ababa……………../2016

MULATU TESHOME (Dr.)
PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC
REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA

አጼ ቴዎድሮስ እና የአስተዳደር ህግ

ስለ ኢትዮጵያ የአስተዳደር ህግ ብሎም ውልደቱ፣ አነሳሱና ታሪካዊ ዕድገቱ ለመጻፍ ብዕሩን የሚያሾል ጸሐፊ ጭብጥ እንዳጣ የልብለወለድ ደራሲ ከየት ልጀምር? በሚል ጭንቀት ተውጦ ጣራ ላይ ማፍጠጥ አይቀርለትም፡፡ ስራውን ፈታኝ የሚያደርገው በህዝብ አስተዳደር እና በአስተዳደር ህግ ላይ የተጻፉ የታሪክ መዛግብት፣ የምርምር ጽሑፎችና መጻህፍት አለመኖር ብቻ አይደለም፡፡ በእርግጥ ለጀማሪ አጥኚ ይህ በራሱ ራስ ምታት ነው፡፡ ከመነሻ ምንጭ እጥረት ባሻገር ሌሎች ዐቢይ ምክንያቶች የአገሪቱን የአስተዳደር ህግ ጉዞ መዘገብ አድካሚ ያደርጉታል፡፡ ለመጥቀስ ያህል፤

  • የጥናት አድማሱ ወጥነት እና ትኩረት ማጣት[1]
  • የዲሞክራሲና ህገ መንግስታዊ ዳራው[2]
  • የፖለቲካና አ[3]ስተዳደር መደበላለቅ
  • የህግ አውጭውና የፍርድ ቤቶች ሚና ማነስ[4]

ባደጉት አገራት የአስተዳደር ህግ ዕድገት ጥርት ባለ መልኩ ወጥነትና ስርዓት እየያዘ ራሱን የቻለ የህግ ክፍል ሆኖ ብቅ ማለት የጀመረው የዘመናው የአስተዳደር (Administrative State) ወይም የማህበራዊ ዋስትና መንግስት (Welfare State) መከሰት ተከትሎ ስለመሆኑ ብዙዎች የመስኩ አጥኚዎች ይስማሙበታል፡፡ በተመሳሳይ ቅኝት ስለ አገራችን አስተዳደር ህግ ታሪካዊ ገጽታዎችና መገለጫዎች ከዘመናዊ አስተዳደር ማቆጥቆጥ ጋር አስታኮ አጠቃላይ ገለጻ መስጠት ይቻላል፡፡

በርካታ የአገራችን ሆኑ የውጭ አገር ታሪክ ጸሐፊዎች በአገራችን ዘመናዊ አስተዳደር የተተከለው የኃይለስላሴ ዙፋን ላይ መውጣት ተከትሎ በነበሩት ዓመታት ውስጥ እንደሆነ ይስማሙበታል፡፡ በተለይም ከኢጣሊያ ወረራ ማብቃትና የንጉሱ ዙፋን መልሶ መረከብ አንስቶ ዘመናዊ አስተዳደር ፈጣን ለውጦች አሳይቷል፡፡

ስለ ኢትዮጵያ የመንግስት አስተዳደር እና አስተዳደር ሲመራበት ስለነበረው ህግ ሲነሳ የአጼ ቴዎድሮስ ውጥን እና ጥረት ሳይጠቀስ አይታለፍም፡፡ አጼ ቴዎድሮስ ብሔራዊ ጦር ለማደራጀት፣ የቤተክስርስትያን የመሬት ይዞታ ለመቆጣጠር፣ የአካባቢ የጦር አበጋዞች በማዕከላዊ መንግስት ስር ለማዋቀር እንዲሁም የመንገድ ግንባታና ሌሎች ማህበራዊ አገልግሎቶች ለመዘርጋት ያደረጓቸው ጥረቶች ለቀጣይ ነገስታት መሰረት ጥለዋል፡፡ ጠንካራ ማዕከላዊ መንግስት ለማቆም እና ዘመናዊ አስተዳደር ለመትከል የነበራቸውን ህልም፣ ውጥን እና ፖሊሲ እንዲሁም እነዚህን ለመተግበር የወሰዷቸው ስር ነቀል እርምጃዎች የለውጥና የስልጣኔ በር ከፍተዋል፡፡

የኢትዮጵያ የአስተዳደር ህግ ውልደት ከቴዎድሮስ ይጀምራል፡፡ አስተዳደራዊ ብልሹነት እንዲቀረፍና ሹመኞች በህዝብ አገልጋይነታቸው በደል እንዳይፈጽሙ በጊዜው ሲያደርጉት የነበረው ክትትል እና የስልጣን ቁጥጥር በኢትዮጵያ የታሪክ መጻህፍት ጎልቶ ባይወጣም በአንዳንድ ጽሁፎች ተዘግቦ ይገኛል፡፡ በደርግ ወታደራዊ መንግስት ልዩ ፍርድ ቤት ይዘጋጅ የነበረው ሕግና ፍትሕ መጽሔት በመጋቢት 1987 እትሙ አጼ ቴዎድሮስ ሙስና እና የአስተዳደር ብልሹነት እንዲወገድ ሲያደርጉት የነበረውን ተጋድሎ ሌላ ምንጭ ጠቅሶ እንደሚከተለው ዘግቦታል፡፡[5]

ቴዎድሮስ ወዘልውጥ በመሆንና አልባሌ ልብስ በመልበስ በመንግስቱ ውስጥ ያለው የአስተዳደር መበላሸት መቆጣጠር፣ ጉቦኞች ሹማምንቶቻቸውን መከታተልና ማጋለጥ ያዘውትሩ ነበር፡፡ በሕዝብ ችግር የጨከኑትን፣ ለግል ጥቅማቸው ሲሉ የመንግስቱን ስራ የሚበድሉትንና ኅብረተሰቡን ያጉላሉትን ሹማምንት ከስልጣን ወንበራቸው ገልብጠዋል፡፡ አባ ታጠቅ ስልጣን በጨበጡ በመጀመሪያዎቹ ዓመታት ውስጥ የጯሂ ጠባቂ (የህዝብ ዕንባ ጠባቂ) ሹማቸው ጉቦ መቀበሉን በማወቃቸውና ራሳቸውም ሲቀበል በማየታቸው በአደባባይ አጋልጠው ሽረውታል፡፡…የጯሂ ጠባቂነቱንም ሥራ ራሳቸው ይዘዋል፡፡

አጼ ቴዎድሮስ የመንግስት ስልጣን በህግና በስርዓት እንዲገራ የነበራቸው ቆራጥ አቋም በታሪክ በተዘገቡ ጥቂት የጊዜው ፍርዶች ላይም ይታያል፡፡ ከእነዚህ ውስጥ አንደኛው በጳውሎስ ኞኞ አጤ ቴዎድሮስ መጽሐፍ ላይ እንደሚከተለው ተዘግቧል፡፡[6]

ቴዎድሮስ ጋይንት ላይ ሰፍረው ሳለ ወታደሮቻቸውን በባላገሩ ላይ ተሰሪ አስገቡ፡፡ ባለገሩ እንዲቀልብ በየቤቱ ማስገባት ማለት ነው፡፡ ተሰሪ ከገቡት ወታደሮች መሀል አንዱ ወታደር አንዱን ባላገር ገደለው፡፡ የሟች ወገንም ከቴዎድሮስ ዘንድ መጥቶ አመለከተ፡፡ ቴዎድሮስም ወታደራቸውን ሁሉ አፈርሳታ አስቀምጠው ገዳዩን አውጣ ብለው ያዙ፡፡ ወታደሩም በመላው አድሞ ገዳዩን አላየንም እያለ በቄስ እየተገዘተ ወጣ፡፡ የሟች ገዳይ ወታደር በመጥፋቱ ቴዎድሮስ ተናደው ‘ወታደር ብላ፤ ባላገር አብላ ያልሁ እኔ ነኝ፡፡ ደመኛህም እኔ ነኝና እኔን ግደል’ ብለው ተነስተው ለከሳሹ ነገሩት፡፡ ከሳሹም ‘እኔ ንጉስ መግደል አይቻለኝም’ አለ፡፡ ቴዎድሮስም ደም በከንቱ አይቀርም ብለው ለሟቹ ወገን የደም ገንዘብ ዋጋ ሰጥተው ሸኙት፡፡

በሌላ ፍርድ ላይ እንዲሁ ለሁለት ወታደሮቻቸው የሰጡት እርስ በርሱ የሚጋጭ ትዕዛዝ የአንደኛውን ወታደር ሞት በማስከተሉ ለሞቱ መከሰት ተጠያቂ ተደርገው ስለተፈረደባቸው በዚያ ንጉስ በማይከሰስበት፤ ሰማይ በማይታረስበት ዘመን ቅጣታቸውን ተቀብለው ፍርዱን ፈጽመዋል፡፡ ታሪኩ በአጭሩ እንደዚህ ነው፡፡

ቴዎድሮስ አንዱን ወታደራቸውን ‘በፍርቃ በር በኩል እርጉዝ ሴት እንኳን ብትሆን እንዳታልፍ ጠንክረህ ጠብቅ’ ብለው ካዘዙት በኋላ በሌላ ቀን ደግሞ ሌላውን ወታደር ጠርተው ‘ፈረስ እያለዋወጥህ ይህን ወረቀት የጁ ሰጥተህ በአስቸኳይ በስድስት ቀን ውስጥ ተመልሰህ እንድትመጣ’ ብለው ሲልኩት እየጋለበ ሄዶ ፍርቃ በር ላይ ሲደርስ ጠብቅ ከተባለው ወታደር ጋር ‘አልፋለው! አታልፍም!’ እሰጥ አገባ ገጥሙ፡፡ በግዴታ ለማለፍ መንገድ ሲጀምር ዘበኛው ተኩሶ ገደለው፡፡ የንጉስ ትዕዛዝ ሲፈጽም የነበረ የንጉስ መልዕክተኛ በዚህ መልኩ መገደሉ ያንገበገባቸው የሟች ወገኖች ገዳዩን በመክሰስ ከቴዎድሮስ ዘንድ አቀረቡት፡፡ ቴዎድሮስም ችሎት አስችለው ፍርድ እንዲፈረድ አደረጉ፡፡

በችሎት የተቀመጠው ፈራጅ ሁሉ እየተነሳ ገዳዩን ‘በደለኛ ነህ እምቢ አልፋለው ቢልህስ ለንጉስ ታሰማ ነበር እንጂ ራስህ ፈርደህ እንዴት የንጉስ መልዕክተኛ ትገድላለህ? አሁንም ስትሞት ይታየናል’ እያሉ ፈረዱ፡፡ አንደኛው ፈራጅ ግን ከተቀመጡበት ተነስተው ከሌሎቹ ፈራጆች በመለየት ሁለት ተቃራኒ ንጉሳዊ ትዕዛዝ መስጠት አግባብ ስላልሆነ ጥፋቱ የሚመለከተው ንጉሠ ነገሥቱን እንደሆነ ከተናገሩ በኋላ ‘ነገር ግን እሳቸው ብርሀን ስለሆኑ ምን ይደረግ?’ በማለት የፍርድ ሀሳባቸውን አሳርገው ተቀመጡ፡፡ አጤ ቴዎድሮስም ይህን የልዩነት የፍርድ ሀሳብ አድንቀው ከተቀመጡበት ተነስተው በተከሳሹ ወታደር ቦታ ወርደው ቆሙ፡፡ በመጨረሻም ፈራጆች በፈረዱት መሰረት በጊዜው የሚከፈለውን የደም ዋጋ አጠፌታውን ብር 500 ከፍለው ጉዳዩ በስምምነት አለቀ፡፡[7]

እነዚህ ሁለት ፍርዶች በጊዜው የነበረውን አጠቃላይ የፍትሕና የዳኝነት ስርዓት እንደማያንጸባርቁ ምክንያታዊ ጥርጣሬ ሊያስነሳ ይችላል፡፡ ሆኖም አንድ መሰረታዊ ነጥብ በጥንቃቄ መታየት አለበት፡፡ ፍርዶቹ የተሰጡበት ዘመን ፍጹማዊ በነበረው የንጉስ ስልጣን ላይ ገደብ እና ተጠያቂነት ሰማይን የማረስ ያክል በተግባር ሊታይ ቀርቶ ከነጭራሹ አይታሰብም፡፡ እውነቱን ለመናገር እስከአሁኑ ጊዜ ድረስ በኢትዮጵያ ምድር የተፈራረቁት ነገስታትና መሪዎች አንዳቸውም ‘ተጠያቂው እኔ ነኝ!’ ብለው በገሀድ በማወጅ የድርጊታቸውን ውጤት አሜን ብለው የተቀበሉበት አጋጣሚ የለም፡፡ ሌላው ደግሞ የፍርድ አሰጣጡ (በተለይ የሁለተኛው ፍርድ) በራሱ ትልቅ መልዕክት ያስተላልፋል፡፡ በልዩነት ሀሳብ ጥፋቱ የንጉሱ እንደሆነ ያለፍርሃት የተናገሩት ፈራጅ ንጉሱን ተጠያቂ ለማድረግ በውስጣቸው የተፈጠረው ነጻነትና ድፍረት ድንገታዊ ነው ለማለት ይከብዳል፡፡ አጼ ቴዎድሮስ አስተዳደራዊ ብልሹነት ለማስወገድና የመንግስት ተጠያቂነት የሰፈነበት መልካም አስተዳደር ለመትከል ያደረጉት ጥረትና የያዙት ጠንካራ አቋም በጊዜው የነበረውን የአገዛዝ ስርዓት መንፈስ ያንጸባርቃል፡፡ ይህንን ለመረዳት ከቴዎድሮስ ቀጥሎ የተነሱትን ገዢዎች በአደባባይ በጥፋተኝነት መፈረጅ የሚያስከትለውን መዘዝ ማሰብ ብቻ ይበቃል፡፡ የዳኝነት ነጻነት ባልሰፈነበት ስርዓት ውስጥ የአገር መሪ ላይ ጣት መቀሰር ጣት ያሳጣል፡፡ ባስ ሲልም ህይወት ያሳጣል፡፡

ንጉስ ሊከሰስ መቻሉ በኢትዮጵያ የአስተዳደር ህግ ታሪክ ውስጥ ብቻ ሳይሆን ድንበር ደፍረው ሊያጠቋቸው የመጡትን እንግሊዞች ሳይቀር ማስደመሙ አይቀርም፡፡ እርግጥ ነው በዚያን ዘመን እንግሊዝ በኅይል አሰላለፍ፣ በጦር መሳሪያ ብዛትና ጥራት ብሎም በኢኮኖሚ ዕድገት ከኢትዮጵያ መጥቃ ሄዳለች፡፡ ሆኖም እ.ኤ.አ እስከ 1947 ዓ.ም. ድረስ በእንግሊዝ ምድር ‘ንጉስ አይከሰስም፣ ሰማይ አይታረስም’ ነበር፡፡ በዚሁ ዓመተ ምህረት የወጣው Crown Proceedings Act 1947 ያለመከሰስ መብትን እስኪያስወግድ ድረስ በእንግሊዝ አገር መንገስት ከውል ውጭ ኃላፊነት ላደረሰው ጉዳት ዜጋው በቀጥታ ክስ አቅርቦ ዳኝነት ማግኘት አይችልም፡፡ አንድ የአገሬው ምሁር በጊዜው የነበረውን ሁኔታ እና ያለመከሰስ መብት በህግ ቀሪ መደረጉን እንደሚከተለው ይገልጸዋል፡፡

There is one public authority that was immune from torts at common law: the Crown. ‘The King can do no wrong’ is an old slogan of the common law. And a tort is a wrong. So at common law the Crown was not liable in tort.  … ‘the King can do no wrong’ can mean either ‘it is not unlawful if the King did it’, or ‘if it was unlawful, it was not the King who did it’… But the Crown Proceedings Act 1947 abolished the immunity. For most purposes, the Crown is liable in tort and breach of contract in the same way as a private individual.[8]

የጊዜው ርዝመት ስንለካው አጼ ቴዎድሮስ ንጉስ የሚከሰስበትን ስርዓት በይፋ በመቀበል እንግሊዞችን በአንድ ክፍለ ዘመን ቀድመዋል፡፡

[1] በበርካታ የህግ ትምህርት ቤቶች የአስተዳደር ህግ ትኩረት ያላገኘና መምህሩ በ assignment የሚገላገለው ኮርስ ሆኖ ቀርቷል፡፡ በዘርፉ የተደረጉ ጥናቶችም በቁጥር በጣም ውስን ናቸው፡፡

[2] የአስተዳደር ህግ የአንዲት አገር ፖለቲካዊ፣ ዲሞክራሲያዊና ህገ መንግስታዊ ስርዓት ነፀብራቅ ነው፡፡ የላይኛው ካላማረ የታችኛውም አያምርም፡፡

[3] አሁንም ድረስ ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ፖለቲካና አስተዳደር መሀላቸው ንፋስ አይገባም፡፡ ፖለቲከኛ አስተዳዳሪ ነው፡፡ አስተዳዳሪም ፖለቲከኛ ነው፡፡ ሙያተኝነት (professionalism) በታማኝነት ተውጧል፡፡

[4] ፓርላማና ፍርድ ቤቶች ስራ አስፈጻሚውን ከመቆጣጠር ይልቅ በተገላቢጦሹ ይቆጣጣራቸዋል፡፡ በስልጣን ቁጥጥር ረገድ ሚናቸው አንድም ‘ምንም’ ወይም አሊያም ‘ከምንም የሚሻል’ ዓይነት ዝቅተኛ ነው፡፡

[5] መዝገቡ ምትኬ “በሥልጣን ያላግባብ መገልገል ወንጀልና ሕግ: በኢትዮጵያ አንዳንድ ሐሳቦች” ሕግና ፍትሕ፡ በኅብረተሰባዊት ኢትዮጵያ ጊዜያዊ ወታደራዊ መንግስት ልዩ ፍርድ ቤት ቅ.3 ቁ 1. መጋቢት 1978 ዓ.ም. ገፅ 26-55

[6] ጳውሎስ ኞኞ, አጤ ቴዎድሮስ (አዲስ አበባ 1985 ዓ.ም.) ገፅ 146

[7] አበራ ጀምበሬ፤ የኢትዮጵያ ሕግና የፍትሕ አፈጻጸም ታሪክ፡ 1426 እስከ 1996 .. (ሻማ ቡክስ 2006 ዓ.ም.) ገፅ 149-150

[8] Timothy Endicott, Administrative Law (2nd. edn, Oxford University Press, 2011) ገፅ 531

PROCLAMATION No. 798-2013 A PROCLAMATION TO RE-ENACT FOR THE STRENGTHENING AND SPECIFYING THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE COUNCIL OF CONSTITUTIONAL INQUIRY

PROCLAMATION No. 798/2013
A PROCLAMATION TO RE-ENACT FOR THE STRENGTHENING AND SPECIFYING THE POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE COUNCIL OF CONSTITUTIONAL INQUIRY OF THE FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA

WHEREAS, it is believed that the full-fledged implementation of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the supreme law of the land, is a guarantee to the continuation of the ongoing democratic system, development and peace;
WHEREAS, the Council of Constitutional Inquiry is established by virtue of Article 82 of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia to conduct constitutional •inquiries and present its findings to the House of the Federation which is empowered to interpret the Constitution;
WHEREAS, the Council is empowered to investigate constitutional disputes as per Article 84 of the Constitution which necessitates to have better practice and structure to respond to issues related to the interpretation of the Constitution efficiently;
WHEREAS, the Council needs to have its own supporting office so that it can discharge its duties efficiently while maintaining its constitutional independence;
NOW, THEREFORE, in accordance With Article 55 (1) of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it is hereby proclaimed as follows

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THE 2001-REVISED CONSTITUTION OF THE AMHARA NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE

THE 2001-REVISED CONSTITUTION OF THE AMHARA NATIONAL REGIONAL STATE 

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Preamble

We, The peoples of the Amhara National Regional State:-

Having been desirous to do away with the negative impact hindering our overall development which the age old oppressive system had for long imposed upon us by cruelly support essaying our human and democratic rights and thereby exposing us all to the scourge of poverty and backwardness as a result unjustified economic and social policies in place;

Being dully convinced  of the fact that we had for long been victims of an unbearable harm caused to us directly or indirectly to an atrocious national oppression which had to be committed in the past on and against the majority of our country’s nation-nationalities and peoples, and henceforth needs to e corrected and rectified hereafter:

Cognizant of the fact that it would be beneficial to an acceleration of our mutual development, Now that our country Ethiopia, stands to be a federal democratic republic, wherein human and democratic rights of individuals as well as Nation- Nationalities and peoples including the right to self-determination up to secession are fully respected and in general the rule of low prevails, once the formerly suppressive and backward system has been uprooted due to the heroic struggle undergone for the ages on the part of all our country’s’ Nation-Nationalities and peoples;

Having firmly believed that, we, the peoples, settling in the Amhara National Regional State, would be able to attain rapid economic growth, durable peace and fullfledged democracy, only when we do mange to possess our own constitution founded on the spirit of the constitution of the Federal DemocraticRrepublic of Ethiopia, taking into account the concrete circumstances of our regional state and thereby enabling us to exercise our constitutional rights dully respected thereto fully and unrestrictedly;

Recalling that, dependent on the above noted background, we had deliberated upon and adopted the regional constitution which has, to this day, been in effect for the very first time on the 22nd day of June 1995 through the agency of our representatives elected from amongst us in a direct participation and democratic manner and sent to the founding congress of the regional council; and thereby the same regional constitution in force /as amended beforehand / deserves tobe, after a deep and thorough examination, revised and promulgated in such a way as to incorporate and exhibit an efficient governmental organization accountable to the electorate and strictly following transparent working procedures to the extent of the requirements demanded by the state of affairs which we are in at the moment;

Now, therefore, have hereby approved the whole text with an undivided vote, to day, on the 5th day of November 2001 in the third regular secession of the regional council held here in Bahir dar, after having thoroughly deliberated upon the revised constitution and deeply examined its specific articles, whose initial draft had to be prepared and submitted to us by the body designated as such for the purpose,

TRANSITIONAL PERIOD CHARTER OF ETHIOPIA No. 1

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Ethiopian Constitution of 1931

 

PEACEFUL AND DEMOCRATIC TRANSITIONAL
CONFERENCE OF ETHIOPIA

TRANSITIONAL PERIOD CHARTER OF ETHIOPIA
No. 1

WHEREAS the overthrow of the military dictatorship that has ruled Ethiopia for seventeen years presents a historical moment, providing the Peoples of Ethiopia with the opportunity to rebuild the country and restructure the slate democratically;

WHEREAS the military dictatorship was, in essence, a continuation of the previous regimes and its demise marks the end of an era of subjugation and oppression thus starting a new chapter in Ethiopian history in which freedom, equal rights and  self determination of all the peoples shall be the governing principles of (political, economic and social life and thereby contributing to the welfare of the Ethiopian Peoples and rescuing them from centuries of subjugation and backwardness;

WHEREAS peace and stability, as essential conditions of development, require the end of all hostilities, the healing of wounds caused by conflicts and the establishment and maintenance of good neighborliness and cooperation;

WHEREAS for the fulfillment of the aforementioned conditions and for the reign of a just peace, the proclamation of democratic order is a categorical imperative, and;

WHEREAS to thi5 end, all institutions of repression installed by the previous regimes shall be dismantled, regional prejudices redressed and the rights and interests of the deprived citizens safeguarded by a democratic government elected by  and accountable to the People:

WHEREAS from the peace loving and democratic forces present in the Ethiopian  society and having varied views,  having met in a Conference convened from July 1-5 in ADDIS ABABA, have discussed and approved The Charter laying dawn the rules governing The Transitional Government n» well as setting down the principles for the transitional period,

NOW THEREFORE, it is hereby proclaimed as follows:

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